ACTL5105 Life Insurance and Superannuation - 2023

Subject Code
Study Level
Commencing Term
Term 1
Total Units of Credit (UOC)
Delivery Mode
On Campus and Online
Risk & Actuarial Studies
The course outline is not available for current term. To view outlines from other year and/or terms visit the archives

1. Course Details

Summary of Course

​This course covers the actuarial mathematics, models and techniques for valuing long-term contingent cashflows. In-depth understanding of valuation of claims is a key aspect of actuarial work, specifically in the areas of life insurance, health, disability insurance, superannuation and pensions, as well as broader financial institutions. This course combines the present value principle with various stochastic tools in pricing, reserving, cashflow projection and profit testing tasks for various products in life insurance, health and disability, and pension and superannuation space. The fundamental techniques covered in the course help insurers to adequately price and manage the risks of various contracts in life insurance and pension systems, hence allowing the creation of products to help individuals manage risks. They are also increasingly applied in broader areas including social protection and government policy.

Teaching Times and Locations

Please note that teaching times and locations are subject to change. Students are strongly advised to refer to the Class Timetable website for the most up-to-date teaching times and locations.

View course timetable

Course Policies & Support

Course Aims and Relationship to Other Courses

​At the end of the course students should be able to:

  • apply survival models to the pricing and valuation of life insurance and pension contracts
  • apply multiple state models to the pricing and valuation of life insurance and pension contracts
  • understands the main forms of insurance and pension contract and their actuarial aspects.

The primary aim of this course is to provide students with an understanding of the mathematical concepts and techniques that are used to model and value cash flows contingent on survival, death and other uncertain events.

Students are assumed to have a good knowledge of ACTL5102 and ACTL5103. The course should normally be taken at the same time as ACTL5104 Actuarial Statistics.

Students should have a solid background in mathematics and are assumed to be able to use a computer to analyse financial and/or statistics problems. You should be able to use a word processing package (such as WORD) and a spreadsheet (such as EXCEL).

2. Staff Contact Details

Position Title Name Email Location Phone Consultation Times
Lecturer-in-chargeAProfJinxia ZhuRm 652, Level 6, East Wing, Business School Bldg+61 90658253TBA

​The Course Coordinator and Lecturer-in-charge is Dr Jinxia Zhu. She is responsible for teaching and assessment of the course. Dr Zhu will hold weekly consultations. Her consultation times will be posted on the course Moodle web site.

The names of the tutors will be announced on the course website. They are responsible for tutorials and grading of the in-session assignment tasks. The tutors will hold consultation in the week before any exam. Their consultation times will also be posted on the course Moodle web site.

3. Learning and Teaching Activities

Use of your Webcam and Digital Devices: If you enrol in an online class, or the online stream of a hybrid class, teaching and associated activities will be conducted using Teams, Zoom, or similar a technology. Using a webcam is optional, but highly encouraged, as this will facilitate interaction with your peers and instructors. If you are worried about your personal space being observed during a class, we encourage you to blur your background or make use of a virtual background. Please contact the Lecturer-in-Charge if you have any questions or concerns.

Some courses may involve undertaking online exams for which your own computer or digital devices will be required. Monitoring of online examinations will be conducted directly by University staff and is bound by the University's privacy and security requirements. Any data collected will be handled accordance with UNSW policies and standards for data governance. For more information on how the University manages personal information please refer to the UNSW Student Privacy Statement and the UNSW Privacy Policy.

Approach to Learning and Teaching in the Course

​The approach adopted in this course is one of assisted self-study. The approach adopted in this course is called “flipped and blended” classroom. The main rationale for this “flipped and blended” structure is twofold. First, it frees up class time which can now be used to do in–class exercises and learning-by-doing activities, which aim at enhancing students’ long-lasting (deep) learning. Second, it brings a significant portion of the face-to-face time later in the learning process, when students are more comfortable with the materials, and more likely to interact and ask questions.

In this flipped and blended approach, the first conceptual encounter with the materials of a given module happens at home when students watch video lectures. These video lectures are accompanied by Moodle forums which provide the students with an immediate opportunity for asking questions on their understanding of the material. Consultation is also available. Then, everyone gathers in the lecture room for a “lectorial”. The word combines lectures—because they are run by the lecturer, and with the whole group, and tutorial—because their goal is not to “lecture” students. By contrast, in this lectorial, the lecturer first provides a high level summary of the key concepts of the module and then moves on to other activities (such as discussions, advanced exercises, guest lectures, real life applications) that aim to cement students’ learning. Finally, the students move on to practicing their knowledge with tutorial exercises. Tutorial sessions aim to provide some additional face-to-face and personalised help.

Course materials are organised in 10 modules. Students are responsible to learn topics with the following materials:

Prescribed books (and recommended books for additional support)

  • Video lectures available on the course web site
  • Tutorial exercises with solutions
  • Past quizzes and exams for advanced exercises

It is expected the students will take a pro-active approach to learning. It is recommended to have read all prescribed readings, watched the associated videos prior to the associated module’s lectorial and then attempted the tutorial exercises, in order to complete the module by the end of the lectorial.

It is expected that you will spend at least ten hours per week studying this course. In periods where you need to complete assignments or prepare for examinations, the workload may be greater. Over-commitment (to extra-curricular activities) has been a cause of failure for many students. You should take the required workload into account when planning how to balance study with employment and other activities. In the past, students have found the amount of contents particularly challenging. Don’t allow yourself to fall behind the schedule!

Learning Activities and Teaching Strategies

​It is expected that the students will take a pro-active approach to learning. The course is organised in the following learning activities.

Video lectures and Self-study

During the time periods of self-study, students should cover the readings, video lectures and tutorials for the associated module. A required learning strategy for this course is to have read all prescribed readings and watched the associated video lectures before lectorials.


Lectorials are there to wrap up modules, to solve advanced exercises and to answer the students’ questions. Students should have read the prescribed books and watched the videos prior to the lectorials. No course contents will be taught during the lectures. Students are encouraged to prepare questions and communicate them to the lecturer in advance (although this is not required).


The more you read the more you know, but the more you practice the more you learn and understand. So the key to the understanding of this course is problem solving. Tutorials are planned throughout the time allocated to a module’s learning. Tutorials are for students to ask questions on aspects of the course that need further clarification and to interact with other students in the course. Students need to attempt the tutorial exercises prior to the tutorial classes and identify problems that require closer review during tutorials. They are an opportunity to learn from other students and to develop team skills by working on problems with other students.

The purpose of tutorials is to enable you to raise questions about difficult topics or problems encountered in their studies. Students must not expect another lecture – they and their questions should drive what is discussed during a tutorial.

A good learning strategy for the tutorials is:

  • Prior to make an attempt of the exercises, review your lecture notes and videos.
  • Prior to the tutorial, make an attempt to the exercises you should make before the tutorial .
  • During the tutorial, make an attempt to the exercises you should make in the tutorial .
  • After the tutorial, make an attempt to the exercises you should make after the tutorial .
  • If you have questions about the tutorial exercises, ask them to your tutor. If you think you have a good understanding of the material, you should try and answer the questions of your peers. This will give you feedback on your ability to explain the material and hence how well you know the material.
  • Check your answer using the tutorial solution.

5. Course Resources

​The prescribed textbook for the course is:

  • D. C. M. Dickson, M. R. Hardy and H. R. Waters, 2nd edition, (2013), Actuarial Mathematics for Life Contingent Risks, Cambridge University Press [A solutions manual is available for purchase. The Solutions manual is strongly encouraged, as solutions to problems assigned from the textbook for tutorials will not be provided.]

Additional, recommended references are:

  • Life insurance mathematics. Gerber, H. U. 3rd ed. Springer; Swiss Association of Actuaries, 1997. 217 pages
  • Actuarial mathematics. Bowers, N. L.; Gerber, H. U.; Hickman, J. C. et al. 2nd ed. Society of Actuaries, 1997. 753 pages.
  • Core Reading for Subject CT5 Contingencies published by The Institute of Actuaries
  • ActEd Course Notes for Subject CT5 Contingencies.

The course draws on and further develops concepts covered in ACTL5101 (Financial Mathematics) and ACTL5103 (Markov Chains). Students should review these concepts as required early in the course.

Formulae & Tables

The only text students are allowed to bring into the examinations for the actuarial course is the text "Formulae and Tables for Actuarial Examinations". It must not be annotated. All students in the actuarial courses should purchase a copy of this text if they wish to use it in tutorials, mid-session exams and the final examinations. The text is available from the UNSW Bookstore, the UK Institute of Actuaries or from ActEd. Visit the ActEd website.

Course website

The course Moodle website is available from the UNSW TELT platform:

To access the Moodle online support site for students, follow the links from that website to UNSW Moodle Support/Support for Students. Additional technical support can be obtained from (02 9385 1333). All course contents will be available from the course website. It is essential that you visit the site regularly (at least weekly) to see any notices posted there by the course coordinator.

6. Course Evaluation & Development

Feedback is regularly sought from students and continual improvements are made based on this feedback. At the end of this course, you will be asked to complete the myExperience survey, which provides a key source of student evaluative feedback. Your input into this quality enhancement process is extremely valuable in assisting us to meet the needs of our students and provide an effective and enriching learning experience. The results of all surveys are carefully considered and do lead to action towards enhancing educational quality.

​Feedback is regularly sought from students and continual improvements are made based on this feedback. At the end of this course, you will be asked to complete the myExperience survey, which provides a key source of student evaluative feedback. Your input into this quality enhancement process is extremely valuable in assisting us to meet the needs of our students and provide an effective and enriching learning experience. The results of all surveys are carefully considered and do lead to action towards enhancing educational quality.

Since a few years ago, the structure of the course and its learning and teaching strategy have changed radically. The main rationale for this change is the exceptional success of the lecture video recordings introduced in other courses, as well as the recurrent student request for additional coverage of exercises during contact hours. As the essentially unilateral lecturing is moved home with the help of video recordings, additional time is available during the lectures to work through exercises, wrap up topics, answer the residual questions students might have and invite guest lecturers. Furthermore, more digital resources have been added to the course including online videos and online quizzes.

Furthermore, as a result of feedback from the past offerings of the course, more time have been allocated to each oral presentation according to the complexity of the question and 2 or more students will be allocated to present the solution to one question so the audience will benefit more from listening to the student presentation. Furthermore, the oral presentations have been changed from in-tutorial presentations to video presentations so as to save tutorial time for discussions acting on the feedback from students. The online quizzes have also be restructured to have better interface in response to students feedback.

7. Course Schedule

Note: for more information on the UNSW academic calendar and key dates including study period, exam, supplementary exam and result release, please visit:
Week Activity Topic Assessment/Other
Week 1: 13 FebruaryLectorial and Tutorial

Module 1: Life insurances benefits (single life)

Video Lecture

Module 2: Life annuities (single life)

Week 2: 20 FebruaryLectorial and Tutorial

Module 2: Life annuities (single life)

Storywall: Discussion Question 1 due on Saturday

Week 3: 27 FebruaryVideo Lecture

Module 3: Net Premium Valuation

Module 4: Premium Reserves and Policy Values - I

Video Lecture

Module 4: Premium Reserves and Policy Values - I

Week 4: 6 MarchLectorial and Tutorial

Module 4: Premium Reserves and Policy Values - II

Storywall: Discussion Question 2 due on Saturday

Self-assessment exam before census date (Not graded. No submission required.)

Video Lecture

Module 5: Gross Premiums and Reserve

Week 5: 13 MarchLectorial and Tutorial

Module 5: Gross Premiums and Reserves

Video Lecture

Module 6: Profit Testing

Week 6: 20 March
Week 7: 27 MarchLectorial and Tutorial

Module 6: Profit Testing

Storywall: Discussion Question 3 due on Monday

Video Lecture

Module 7: Multiple Decrement Models

Module 8: Multiple State Models

Week 8: 3 AprilLectorial and Tutorial

Module 7: Multiple Decrement Models

Module 8: Multiple State Models


Note: No tutorial classes on Friday in this week due to public holiday.

Storywall: Discussion Question 4 due on Saturday

Video Lecture

Module 9: Insurance and Annuities for Multiple Lives

Week 9: 10 AprilLectorial and Tutorial

Module 9: Insurance and Annuities for Multiple Lives

Note: No lecture on Monday this week due to public holiday. Students enrolled in the Monday lecture stream should attend the online stream on Wednesday 10:00am - 12:00pm or watch the recording of the online stream

Video Lecture

Module 10: Pension funds

Week 10: 17 AprilLectorial and Tutorial

Module 10: Pension funds

Storywall: Discussion Question 5 due

8. Policies and Support

Information about UNSW Business School program learning outcomes, academic integrity, student responsibilities and student support services. For information regarding special consideration, supplementary exams and viewing final exam scripts, please go to the key policies and support page.

Program Learning Outcomes

The Business School places knowledge and capabilities at the core of its curriculum via seven Program Learning Outcomes (PLOs). These PLOs are systematically embedded and developed across the duration of all coursework programs in the Business School.

PLOs embody the knowledge, skills and capabilities that are taught, practised and assessed within each Business School program. They articulate what you should know and be able to do upon successful completion of your degree.

Upon graduation, you should have a high level of specialised business knowledge and capacity for responsible business thinking, underpinned by ethical professional practice. You should be able to harness, manage and communicate business information effectively and work collaboratively with others. You should be an experienced problem-solver and critical thinker, with a global perspective, cultural competence and the potential for innovative leadership.

All UNSW programs and courses are designed to assess the attainment of program and/or course level learning outcomes, as required by the UNSW Assessment Design Procedure. It is important that you become familiar with the Business School PLOs, as they constitute the framework which informs and shapes the components and assessments of the courses within your program of study.

PLO 1: Business knowledge

Students will make informed and effective selection and application of knowledge in a discipline or profession, in the contexts of local and global business.

PLO 2: Problem solving

Students will define and address business problems, and propose effective evidence-based solutions, through the application of rigorous analysis and critical thinking.

PLO 3: Business communication

Students will harness, manage and communicate business information effectively using multiple forms of communication across different channels.

PLO 4: Teamwork

Students will interact and collaborate effectively with others to achieve a common business purpose or fulfil a common business project, and reflect critically on the process and the outcomes.

PLO 5: Responsible business practice

Students will develop and be committed to responsible business thinking and approaches, which are underpinned by ethical professional practice and sustainability considerations.

PLO 6: Global and cultural competence

Students will be aware of business systems in the wider world and actively committed to recognise and respect the cultural norms, beliefs and values of others, and will apply this knowledge to interact, communicate and work effectively in diverse environments.

PLO 7: Leadership development

Students will develop the capacity to take initiative, encourage forward thinking and bring about innovation, while effectively influencing others to achieve desired results.

These PLOs relate to undergraduate and postgraduate coursework programs.  For PG Research PLOs, including Master of Pre-Doctoral Business Studies, please refer to the UNSW HDR Learning Outcomes

Business School course outlines provide detailed information for students on how the course learning outcomes, learning activities, and assessment/s contribute to the development of Program Learning Outcomes.

UNSW Graduate Capabilities

The Business School PLOs also incorporate UNSW graduate capabilities, a set of generic abilities and skills that all students are expected to achieve by graduation. These capabilities articulate the University’s institutional values, as well as future employer expectations.

UNSW Graduate CapabilitiesBusiness School PLOs
Scholars capable of independent and collaborative enquiry, rigorous in their analysis, critique and reflection, and able to innovate by applying their knowledge and skills to the solution of novel as well as routine problems.
  • PLO 1: Business knowledge
  • PLO 2: Problem solving
  • PLO 3: Business communication
  • PLO 4: Teamwork
  • PLO 7: Leadership development

Entrepreneurial leaders capable of initiating and embracing innovation and change, as well as engaging and enabling others to contribute to change
  • PLO 1: Business knowledge
  • PLO 2: Problem solving
  • PLO 3: Business communication
  • PLO 4: Teamwork
  • PLO 6: Global and cultural competence
  • PLO 7: Leadership development

Professionals capable of ethical, self-directed practice and independent lifelong learning
  • PLO 1: Business knowledge
  • PLO 2: Problem solving
  • PLO 3: Business communication
  • PLO 5: Responsible business practice

Global citizens who are culturally adept and capable of respecting diversity and acting in a socially just and responsible way.
  • PLO 1: Business knowledge
  • PLO 2: Problem solving
  • PLO 3: Business communication
  • PLO 4: Teamwork
  • PLO 5: Responsible business practice
  • PLO 6: Global and cultural competence

While our programs are designed to provide coverage of all PLOs and graduate capabilities, they also provide you with a great deal of choice and flexibility.  The Business School strongly advises you to choose a range of courses that assist your development against the seven PLOs and four graduate capabilities, and to keep a record of your achievements as part of your portfolio. You can use a portfolio as evidence in employment applications as well as a reference for work or further study. For support with selecting your courses contact the UNSW Business School Student Services team.

Academic Integrity and Plagiarism

Academic Integrity is honest and responsible scholarship. This form of ethical scholarship is highly valued at UNSW. Terms like Academic Integrity, misconduct, referencing, conventions, plagiarism, academic practices, citations and evidence based learning are all considered basic concepts that successful university students understand. Learning how to communicate original ideas, refer sources, work independently, and report results accurately and honestly are skills that you will be able to carry beyond your studies.

The definition of academic misconduct is broad. It covers practices such as cheating, copying and using another person’s work without appropriate acknowledgement. Incidents of academic misconduct may have serious consequences for students.


UNSW regards plagiarism as a form of academic misconduct. UNSW has very strict rules regarding plagiarism. Plagiarism at UNSW is using the words or ideas of others and passing them off as your own. All Schools in the Business School have a Student Ethics Officer who will investigate incidents of plagiarism and may result in a student’s name being placed on the Plagiarism and Student Misconduct Registers.

Below are examples of plagiarism including self-plagiarism:

Copying: Using the same or very similar words to the original text or idea without acknowledging the source or using quotation marks. This includes copying materials, ideas or concepts from a book, article, report or other written document, presentation, composition, artwork, design, drawing, circuitry, computer program or software, website, internet, other electronic resource, or another person's assignment, without appropriate acknowledgement of authorship.

Inappropriate Paraphrasing: Changing a few words and phrases while mostly retaining the original structure and/or progression of ideas of the original, and information without acknowledgement. This also applies in presentations where someone paraphrases another’s ideas or words without credit and to piecing together quotes and paraphrases into a new whole, without appropriate referencing.

Collusion: Presenting work as independent work when it has been produced in whole or part in collusion with other people. Collusion includes:

  • Students providing their work to another student before the due date, or for the purpose of them plagiarising at any time
  • Paying another person to perform an academic task and passing it off as your own
  • Stealing or acquiring another person’s academic work and copying it
  • Offering to complete another person’s work or seeking payment for completing academic work

Collusion should not be confused with academic collaboration (i.e., shared contribution towards a group task).

Inappropriate Citation: Citing sources which have not been read, without acknowledging the 'secondary' source from which knowledge of them has been obtained.

Self-Plagiarism: ‘Self-plagiarism’ occurs where an author republishes their own previously written work and presents it as new findings without referencing the earlier work, either in its entirety or partially. Self-plagiarism is also referred to as 'recycling', 'duplication', or 'multiple submissions of research findings' without disclosure. In the student context, self-plagiarism includes re-using parts of, or all of, a body of work that has already been submitted for assessment without proper citation.

To see if you understand plagiarism, do this short quiz:


The University also regards cheating as a form of academic misconduct. Cheating is knowingly submitting the work of others as their own and includes contract cheating (work produced by an external agent or third party that is submitted under the pretences of being a student’s original piece of work). Cheating is not acceptable at UNSW.

If you need to revise or clarify any terms associated with academic integrity you should explore the 'Working with Academic Integrity' self-paced lessons available at:

For UNSW policies, penalties, and information to help you avoid plagiarism see: as well as the guidelines in the online ELISE tutorials for all new UNSW students: For information on student conduct see:

For information on how to acknowledge your sources and reference correctly, see: If you are unsure what referencing style to use in this course, you should ask the lecturer in charge.

Student Responsibilities and Conduct

​Students are expected to be familiar with and adhere to university policies in relation to class attendance and general conduct and behaviour, including maintaining a safe, respectful environment; and to understand their obligations in relation to workload, assessment and keeping informed.

Information and policies on these topics can be found on the 'Managing your Program' website.


It is expected that you will spend at least ten to twelve hours per week studying for a course except for Summer Term courses which have a minimum weekly workload of twenty to twenty four hours. This time should be made up of reading, research, working on exercises and problems, online activities and attending classes. In periods where you need to complete assignments or prepare for examinations, the workload may be greater. Over-commitment has been a cause of failure for many students. You should take the required workload into account when planning how to balance study with employment and other activities.

We strongly encourage you to connect with your Moodle course websites in the first week of semester. Local and international research indicates that students who engage early and often with their course website are more likely to pass their course.

View more information on expected workload

Attendance and Engagement

Your regular attendance and active engagement in all scheduled classes and online learning activities is expected in this course. Failure to attend / engage in assessment tasks that are integrated into learning activities (e.g. class discussion, presentations) will be reflected in the marks for these assessable activities. The Business School may refuse final assessment to those students who attend less than 80% of scheduled classes where attendance and participation is required as part of the learning process (e.g. tutorials, flipped classroom sessions, seminars, labs, etc.). If you are not able to regularly attend classes, you should consult the relevant Course Authority.

View more information on attendance

General Conduct and Behaviour

You are expected to conduct yourself with consideration and respect for the needs of your fellow students and teaching staff. Conduct which unduly disrupts or interferes with a class, such as ringing or talking on mobile phones, is not acceptable and students may be asked to leave the class.

View more information on student conduct

Health and Safety

UNSW Policy requires each person to work safely and responsibly, in order to avoid personal injury and to protect the safety of others.

View more information on Health and Safety

Keeping Informed

You should take note of all announcements made in lectures, tutorials or on the course web site. From time to time, the University will send important announcements to your university e-mail address without providing you with a paper copy. You will be deemed to have received this information. It is also your responsibility to keep the University informed of all changes to your contact details.

Student Support and Resources

The University and the Business School provide a wide range of support services and resources for students, including:

Business School Learning Support Tools
Business School provides support a wide range of free resources and services to help students in-class and out-of-class, as well as online. These include:

  • Academic Communication Essentials – A range of academic communication workshops, modules and resources to assist you in developing your academic communication skills.
  • Learning consultations – Meet learning consultants who have expertise in business studies, literacy, numeracy and statistics, writing, referencing, and researching at university level.
  • PASS classes – Study sessions facilitated by students who have previously and successfully completed the course.
  • Educational Resource Access Scheme – To support the inclusion and success of students from equity groups enrolled at UNSW Sydney in first year undergraduate Business programs.

The Nucleus - Business School Student Services team
The Nucleus Student Services team provides advice and direction on all aspects of enrolment and graduation. Level 2, Main Library, Kensington 02 8936 7005 /

Business School Equity, Diversity and Inclusion
The Business School Equity, Diversity and Inclusion Committee strives to ensure that every student is empowered to have equal access to education. The Business School provides a vibrant, safe, and equitable environment for education, research, and engagement that embraces diversity and treats all people with dignity and respect.

UNSW Academic Skills
Resources and support – including workshops, individual consultations and a range of online resources – to help you develop and refine your academic skills. See their website for details.

Student Support Advisors
Student Support Advisors work with all students to promote the development of skills needed to succeed at university, whilst also providing personal support throughout the process.
John Goodsell Building, Ground Floor.
02 9385 4734

International Student Support
The International Student Experience Unit (ISEU) is the first point of contact for international students. ISEU staff are always here to help with personalised advice and information about all aspects of university life and life in Australia.
Advisors can support you with your student visa, health and wellbeing, making friends, accommodation and academic performance.
02 9385 4734

Equitable Learning Services
Equitable Learning Services (formerly Disability Support Services) is a free and confidential service that provides practical support to ensure that your health condition doesn't adversely affect your studies. Register with the service to receive educational adjustments.
Ground Floor, John Goodsell Building.
02 9385 4734

UNSW Counselling and Psychological Services
Provides support and services if you need help with your personal life, getting your academic life back on track or just want to know how to stay safe, including free, confidential counselling.
Level 2, East Wing, Quadrangle Building.
02 9385 5418

Library services and facilities for students
The UNSW Library offers a range of collections, services and facilities both on-campus and online.
Main Library, F21.
02 9065 9444

Moodle eLearning Support
Moodle is the University’s learning management system. You should ensure that you log into Moodle regularly.
02 9385 3331

UNSW IT provides support and services for students such as password access, email services, wireless services and technical support.
UNSW Library Annexe (Ground floor).
02 9385 1333

Support for Studying Online

The Business School and UNSW provide a wide range of tools, support and advice to help students achieve their online learning goals. 

The UNSW Guide to Online Study page provides guidance for students on how to make the most of online study.

We recognise that completing quizzes and exams online can be challenging for a number of reasons, including the possibility of technical glitches or lack of reliable internet. We recommend you review the Online Exam Preparation Checklist of things to prepare when sitting an online exam.