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Sales derive from the behaviour and actions of consumers, customers, buyers and clients. Such behaviour is measured in terms of purchasing, repeat-buying, duplicate buying, retention and switching. An understanding of these measures and associated patterns and models is critically important. Practical uses of this knowledge are considered auditing the performance of established brands, predicting and evaluating the performance of new brands, checking the nature of unfamiliar markets, of partitioned markets and of dynamic situations (for example, as a result of price-promotions, advertising, the introduction of loyalty-programs, and new product launches). Practical exercises illustrate the implications for understanding consumers, brands, the marketing mix and marketing management.